The Electric Car uses the electricity stored in rechargeable batteries. Electric cars use electric motors instead of internal combustion engines.
Electric Cars are usually cars, light trucks, bicycles, electric scooters, small golf vehicles, forklifts and the like. Electric Cars were among the cars that appeared first and have a higher energy efficiency rate than all cars with internal combustion engines.
In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began looking for less polluting cars, targeting zero-emission cars such as electric cars. In response, automakers have developed electric models. California-based automaker Tesla Motors began work on an electric model that later became the Tesla Roadester, with first deliveries in 2008. The Roadster was the first electric car to use lithium-ion batteries and could make 320 km per charge.
By 2019, electric cars have lower operating costs compared to internal combustion cars due to lower maintenance costs and the electricity they use, but have a higher selling price.The more miles you do over time, the more likely it is that the total cost of owning an electric car will be significantly lower than a similar car with an internal combustion engine. This can only be done for Electric Cars that have a satisfactory battery temperature control system, as it is essential for its longevity. It also depends on the taxation and subsidies provided by each country for the purchase of an electric car as several states have issued mitigating factors to reduce the cost of buying electric cars. By 2019, electric car batteries influence car costs.
Electric motors can provide more power according to their weight and batteries can be designed to provide the energy needed to power them. Electric motors have a straight torque curve even at zero speed, that is they can offer high torque values even at low speeds. For simplicity reasons and reliability many electric cars have a one-speed gearbox and no clutch.
Many electric cars have higher acceleration than average internal combustion cars. This is mainly due to lower energy losses and the direct torque of the motors. However, all-wheel motors may have lower acceleration due to weaker electric motors.
Some Electric Cars have their motors directly connected to the wheels and in this way, the use of the electric motor as a means of propulsion and as a means of braking is allowed. Furthermore, maximum strength and traction are increased.
The autonomy of an electric car depends on the number of batteries it uses and their type and as with all vehicles, its weight, use and weather. Nowadays, the autonomy of electric cars varies from 100 km to 630Km.
Most electric cars are equipped with systems that inform the driver of the estimated autonomy of the car. This system can take into account various variables such as the way the driver drives, the type of tires and the battery consumption. However, since the variables can fluctuate along the way, the estimate may differ from the actual autonomy. This system allows the driver to make conscious choices, as far as the speed of the vehicle is concerned and if there is need to stop for charging.
They need less service and maintenance, as:
- Do not require regular oil changes.
- They do not have either an exhaust system or an exhaust device, nor a pre-exhaust muffler, a catalyst or a smoke filter.
- They do not require replacement or even maintenance on mechanical parts, such as ignition system, pistons, valves or camshafts, because in Electric Cars they do not exist, whereas internal combustion engines have more than 100 moving parts.
They do not produce pollutants
They cause the least possible pollution in the long run, provided they use electricity from renewable energy sources. Under this condition, they can mitigate global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and reduce dependence on oil.
They are quieter than internal combustion cars, reducing noise pollution in cities and putting less strain on natural ecosystems.
They achieve almost constant torque from standstill to the maximum operating speed limit.
They are capable of running at higher speeds than gasoline engines, often even up to 14,000 rpm.
They have lower travel costs, since the price of electricity is much lower than gasoline, which is even affected by the occasional increase in the price of oil. In addition, Electric Cars are designed to self-charge during vehicle deceleration (regenerative braking), further improving the consumption index, while at a standstill (eg traffic lights) do not consume any energy.
They are easier to drive (they do not have a clutch or gears, they slow down when leaving the throttle)
They create less heat load on the planet, as they do not require the cooling system of internal combustion engines.